The study of fossils is divided into number of broad areas of expertise , saligrams are classifed as ammonite fossils in palaeontology. Saligramas are sacred stones which represent the abstract form of lord vishnu . The marks made by the shell of the ammonite give a shaligrama its characteristic appearance with the pattern often resembling and representing the sudarshana chakra which rests on the index finger of lord vishnu . According to shastras a small insect known as vjara kita cuts through this stone and lives inside this saligrama . Saligrama stone come in large number of sizes ranging from small less than the size of a a small marble to fair sized rock . The saligrama is a black ammonite stone found in nepal in the river gandaki a northern tributary of the ganges also known in antiquity as narayani , shalagram hiranvati , and hiranyavati It is a sort of fossilized shell , oval is shape with abrasions or tree like marking on it , smooth , shining , egg liked , may have a hole , be like a shell . It is considered sacred and is usually indentified with lord vishnu or lord krishna beacuse of its natural mystical marking it is categorized as svayambhu or self existent .The saligramas are of various colour and according to it the stones are variously named for example shubra vasudeva blue …..Hiranyangarbha , black vishnu , red pradhyumna , dark green srinarayan , dark blue narsimha or vaman the one having twelve chakra or wheels is regarded as anant there are 89 kinds of saligramas altogether .
Puranas have recorded many other characteristics to classify saligrama . Each of the prominent varieties mentioned above were again divided into new kinds in accordance with its color and other cahracteristics .We find the new divisions of saligram properly recorded in the skandapurana the benefit of worshiping these varieties are also described the glaced type bestows liberation , black bestows fame , brown removes sin , yellow bestows progeny , blue grants fortune according to the text yogaparijata worship offered to a broken or rough saligrama causes loss of wealth, intellect and longetivity and that to one which is either white in color or printed with teeth like marks brings good fortune . The skand puran reveals that saligram shilas can be indentified by different colors, shapes and markings . Yhe scriptures explains the positive and negative effects of worshipping various types of shaligram shilas . The agni puran further expands on the lsit of shaligram shilas which always give fortunate or unfortunate rewards . By looking at the different marking on shilas we can identify particular shila standard texts for the same are hari bhakti vilas citing brahma puran , padma puran , gautmiya tantra . Skandapurana mentions 24 types of saligrams keshava , madhusudana , sankashana , domaodara , vasudeva , pradyumna , vishnu , madhava , ananta , purushottama , adhokshaja , janardana , govinda , triikrama , shridhara , hrishikesha , nrisimha , vishvayoni , vamana , narayana , pundarikaksha , upendra , ahri , krishna . Praopanchasara tantra mentions 50 different forms each of which may be worshipped in a saligrama keshava , narayana , madhava , govinda , madhusudana , trivikrama , vamana , shridhara , hrishkesha , padmanabha , damodara , vasudeva , sankarshana , pradyumna , aniruddha , chakrin , gadin , sharngin , khadgin , halin , musalin , shoolin , passhin , anushin mukunda , nandaja , nandin , nara , narakajit , hari , krishna , satya , satvata , shauri , shuri , janardana , bhudharin , vishvamurti , vaikundtha , purushottama , balin , vrishagna , vrisha , hamsa , varaha , vimala , narasimha . In padampuran it is said that in whatever homes you find a saligram the home is better than places of pilgrimage , just by looking at a shaligramserious sins are absolved those you pray to it are specially blessed saligram is symbolic of the universal vishnu . In skandpuran shiva has narrated the importance of saligram every year in the hindu kartik on the twelfth day of the lunar month women conduct marriages between saligram and tulsi and offer new clothes and other items . Amongst hindus the marriage seson starts thereafter . In the brahvaivartpuran prakritikhand chapter 21 it is said that wherever one finds saligram vishnu reside there after completing several pilgrimages lakshmi also joins hin . All kinds of sns are absolved . Saligram has the ability to bless one with important positions , prosperty and prosperity . However one must avoid keeping defective and damaged saligram that are sharp , malformed yellow or discolored .Such saligram bring bad luck and create problems and must be discarded .
The tantra is a science propounded by lord shiva himself for the welfare of mankind . Tantra is a holistic approach to the study of the universe from the point of view of the individual the study of the macrocosm through the study of the microcosm . It draws all the sciences astronomy , astrology , numerology , physiognomy , physics , chemistry , alchemy , ayurveda , psychology , parapsychology , mathematics geometry and so on to provide a practical means of realizing the highest ideals of philosophy in daily life . Tantra draws them together like beads of strings . The beautiful rosary thus formed is a unique instrument for enhancing the physical , mental and spiritual life of a man and woman . The word tantra is derived from the root tanadi tanu ( expansion ) by adding suffix shtran . According to the sentence shivah tanrayati tanrayate yat tat tantram all business pertaining to expansive system is included in tantra . The tanra is composed of two syllables tan ie physical body and tra to afford protection . Thus tantra literally means control and protection to physical body . Tantra also means tanu vistare is knowledge of expansion /explanation of many aspects simultaneously . By tantra one can expand his body and mind to the extent where time loses its limits and merges with each element of the particular cosmos there is nothing which cannot be accomplished . In ancient time a tantrik was one who knew many vidyas , shastra and granths . ypes of tantra sadhana vama marga & dakshina marga . Prakriti ( nature ) is divided into three parts para denote shiva , seed teh shakti , apara or naad is mixture of two these three are the basic elements of tantra .In india there are many seats of tantrik knowledge like one at kamakhya temple at guwhati assam , tarapeeth at calcutta , mahakaal at ujjain . There are six powerful varities of fortified tantra vanaspati tantra , pakshi tantra , ratna tantra , nakshatra tantra , kaak tantra , vashi tantra , and maaran tantra . Broadly tantras are classified into five groups shaiv , vaishnav , shakta , saur , and gaanpatya depending on its followers tantra shastra describes three types of bhavas divya , veer and animal . In divya or divine bhava a practioner treats and worships all female as shakti and all males as shiva . Tantra is basically worship of shakti pooja .Tantra sadhana is divided in three aagam , yamal and varahi tantra In aagam creation , destruction , Shatkarma ( 6 types of karma ) , Sadhana , recitation , Satyakarma sadhanana and four types of dharma ( brahmin , vaishnav , shaiva & shakta dharma . As erthe scriptures tantric traditions there are three types of troubles in a human’s life these are daivik / divine troubles are created by god / nature for example earthquake , flood , tsunami certain diseases that kill mass of people at one time are alos part of daivik prakop . Daihik / related to body troubles are related to diseases and accidents . Bhauktik / physical mental suffering caused by quarrels . litigation , unemployment this creates sorrow in one’s life .
In tantra shsastra kaali is described in eight forms prominent among them are mahakaali , daskinkaali and bhadrakaali it is also done too ward off evil effects of malefic saturn . Matangi ( sun ) sadhana is done to remove delay ( obstrcution ) in marriage to keep one beautiful to have happy marital life and for success in spiritual , political fields , examinations , competition or interviews . Bhuneshwari ( moon ) sadhana her lord is traimka shiva the sustaining and moving force of the universe through planet moon responsible for growth , nourishment and happy domestic life the goddess is controller and conductor of all the three worlds she bestows power , valor , health , wealth , prosperity , fame and fulfillment of all desires all cosmic vibrations coming from south west can be harnessed by this shakti for proper mental and physical growth . Baglamukhi ( mars ) sadhana he goddess appeared as a result of tapa by lord vishnu to dispel the problems of human beings caused because of a great oceanic storm ( swatantra tantra ) it was on a tuesday and night of chaturdashi therefore her sadhana is commenced on either of the two days the sadhak is blessed with victory over enemy in litigation , competition and election , cure from chronic diseases to ward off difficulties and malefic planetary effects and power to control and torture enemies this is useful in all the shat karma . Shodeshi tripur sundari ( mercury ) sadhna the goddess is creator of all the three lokas and is controller of mind , life , and speech force in the body hence called tripur sundari also . Tara ( jupiter ) sadhana at the time of catastrophe ( pralaya ) she sucks all teh juices of moon , humans , animals , and vanspati and causes destruction by posionous gases also callled as bhagwati vipadharini as she protects her disciples from all types of troubles worshipped in satwik , rajas and tamas forms but satwik pooja is the best she bestows all types of comforts , knowledge , moksha and destroys enemies she is one of the sasam vidya ( ten principal deities of the kli peeth ) and is worshipped to remove all negative effects of jupiter and saturn she gives happiness to women to give conjugal bliss and is must for unmarried girls to get a good husband . Kamala ( venus ) sadhana the goddess is also called laskhmi she is vaishnavi shakti and is oppostire of dhoomvati .
Yantra flourished in eastern india until the beginning of the 13th century when the invaders destroyed the instituions educating the centers of yantra . Rare manuscripts paintings and icons were detroyed and the teachers were killled, some manage to escape to nepal tibet , assam burma , south india , ceylon , java and took with them the knowledge of all this and also some manuscripts Original manuscripts therefore come to be be preservedin tibet , nepal and remote areas of the himalayas . Yantras play a significant role in the meditative practices as decribed in our classics according to sanskrit dictionary vachaspatyam , yantram is an instrument or an instrument for holding or restraining which may be used to denote a variety of linear diagrams it is a geomatric design acting as a highly efficient tool for contemplation , concentration and meditation . Yantras often focus on a specific deity and so by tuning into different or creative force centresa in the universe according to our classics . Yantra is a technique or path through which one can attain siddhi and attain your desires and is the shortest way provied by our rishis provided they are followed with instructions and directions . There are five types of yanras which are know as bhu prisht yantra , meru prastar yantra , paatal yantra , meru prastar yanra , ruram prisht yantra .According to shastras yantras are divided into seven types namely sharir yantras , dharm yantra , aasan yantra , mandal yantras , pooja yantras , chhatar yantras & darshan yantras .yantras may be of simple designs symbolosing basic concepts such as cross , traingle , square , circle or lotus . They may be of more complex combinations of such elements in figures which represent abstract form the particualr creative forces in the cosmos which are called divinities . Yantras are usually designed so that the eye is carried into teh centre and very often they are symmetrical . They can be inscribed on apper , wood , metal or earth or can be three dimensional it is said that pious spirits ( devas ) reside in yantras and without performing pooja of yantra neityher one can appease them nor attain desired results from yantras .Yantra impliesa process of writing numerals on a paper , bhojpatra , metal ashtdhatu , stone or gold each number has its own significance . Yantras may be numerical syllabical or diagramtic .
Yantras exists in almost all religions of the world hinduism , jainism , islam , christanity . Yantra is an appratus , a talisman , or mystical diagram that can be made after attaining siddhi under the instruction of a competent guru only . Some of the greatest siddhas are tirumala , boga , agastyan , gautam buddha , mahavira , patanjali , goraknath , tilopa , naropa , milarepa who attained great occult powers ( siddhis ) with the help of yantra . In writing and drawing of yantras lines are drawn from east to west when used for a good purpose . Yantras for uchattan , death and one’s enemies are written from west to east . Lines for progress are made from up and then proceed downwards . The correct and auspicious time / muhurat is very important yantras for good causes be written in the morning , for peace at midnight , for videshan at noon , for death in the evening , for uchattan in the afternoon , yantra for good causes like love , affection , and cure of diseases are written on thursdays , yantra related to love affairs mohan , vashikaran , aakarshan , business and sale and control of one’s speech are written on friday and wednesday , yantra related to love , diseases affection , power authority favours and meetings with superior or dignitaries, yantras related to maran and uchattan are written on saturdays , yantras realted to litigation , enemies , videshan , maran , creating differences between people are written on tuesdays , yantras related to love , affection attraction between two sexes are written on mondays the sadhaka should write the yantra at an auspicious and appropriate hora failing which the work started will not yield sucess . Vashikaran yantras brings any person , animal , deity or soul under one’s control including one’s adversaries , Shanti karan yantra deal with cure of diseases and aids in warding off the malefic influence of soul and planets . Stambhan yantras are meant to stop or prevent generally used to thwart the efforts of on’s enemies or opponents who may be plotting for one’s downfall . Videshan yantras are meant for creating difference between people , Uchattan yantras deal with the distraction of one’s enemy so that they remain away from their homes , country , business , families etc . Maran yantras these are death inflciting yantras through which anybody’s death can be plotted .
Mantras are divided into three major divisons kerela also known as misdra , kashmira also known as sattwika , gandha also known as vama marga , it covers not only vedic hinduism ( saiva , sakta vaishnava sub divisions but buddhism and jainism too . Mantra shastra has close resemblance with the practive of cosmograms called as yantra and with occuklt rituals known as tantra . Mantra is derived from two roots man ( to think ) trai ( to protect ) . Thus mantra is the science of training the mind to protect the self .Human being is composed of three entities atma /soul represented by the sun & atmakaraka , mana / mind including the conscious , sub conscious and other levels represented by the moon and amatyakaraka , sareera / physical body represented by the lagna lord or devatakaraka , Standard texts for mantra are mantra maharnava , mantramahodhdhi , mantra parijata , mantra sarvasava . But most of themare unsuitable for the practive of devotee , for they suffer from disabilities and diseases which the texts describe as chinna , rudha , rakta-hina , paranmukha , supta , visirna etc . A mantra is said to be like an individual and must go through several sequences before it can become effective janana /birth , dipana / bringing to light , bodhana/ activising , abhisheka /concecration , nirmalikarana /purification , jivana /enlivening , tarpanba/satiations & aphyayana /completing . the mantra must be given by guru who has himself mastered the amntra by continous practice .
There are three kinds of sound vibration savitra , anudatta , udatta . Savitra is the mixed tone produced by the combination of high and low tone . When savitra is raised that is when it is uttered with more sound udatta is produced whereas anuddata is low and grave sound . In each of the three accents mentioned above are seven seperate notes widely known as sapta swaras which are called shadja known as peacock , rishabha known as notes of bull , gandhara known as notes of goat , madhyama known as notes of curlew or hiren , pancama known as notes of koil , dhaivata known as notes of horse , nishada known as notes of elephants . Sex of the mantra can be indentified on the basis of ending words masculine mantra ( pum ) can be identified by their ending syllable /words like words vasat or fhui etc. These have the strength to ward off evil and are generally aggresive . Feminine mantra ( stri ) on the other hand is docile and generally ends with swaha or vaushat etc . They require the practioner to be dedicated and make offerings to the deity . Neuter mantra ( naopumsaka or kliba ) has words like namah , hum etc which require to submit to the will of the deity . Mantras are classified on number of aksharas /syllables shorter mantrta are suitable for younger persons , longer mantras are suitable for elder persons depending on the number of akshara ( letter or phonemes ) the mantra can be classified as pinda ( one phoneme ) , kartari ( two phoneme ) , three to ten phoneme ) , mantra ( eleven to twenty phonemes ) and mala mantrta ( more than twenty phonemes ) . The purpose of a mantra in this material world can be classified into six groups as per the final objective to be achieved called shadkarma . Of these only the shanti m,antra are satwik . Vasikaran and stambhanam are rajasik as the reamining three are definitely tamasik shanti /pacification meant for the destruction of diseases , general wellbing and emancipation from the cycle of rebirth , vasyam / vasikaran / captivation meant for captivating another in the form of bondage or physical attraction etc , stambhanam /immobilisation meant for mentally or physically obstrcutuing a person or group , vidvesana /dissension meant for creating difference between couples , close friends or allies , ucchatana / aversion meant for making a person hate another person or place , marana / eradication meant for causing the death of a person or enemy .
Sahasraara Chakra Governed By Moon / Chandra
Agnya Chakra Governed By Sun / Surya
Vishuddha Chakra Governed By Saturn / Shani
Anaahata Chakra Governed By Venus / Shukra
Manipoora Chakra Governed By Jupiter / Guru
Swaadhishthaana Chakra Governed By Mercury / Budh
Mooladhaara Chakra Governed By Mars / Mangal