The golden temple is in south east amritsar in the heart of the old city . A circular road runs around the periphery of the walled area that’s the old city within which lie the jallianwalla bagh and shopping haven of hall bazar and katra jaimal singh . The railway station is in the centre of the city . The grand trunk road built in 16th century connecting delhi and lahore cuts the station roads towards the east of the city . Upmarket places such as mall road and lawrence road are to the north east of the railway statiion . Also known as the darbar sahib or the divine court the golden temple architecture reflects the basic tenets of sikhism . Just as the religion combines the principles of hinduism & islam . Sikh architecture fuses both religious styles while also expressing its individuality . Guru arjun dev had the structure built at a level lower than the surrounding land as he wanted devotees to go down the steps to reach the gurudwara a gesture symbolising humility . The harbinger has four entrances emphasing the fact that it’s doors are open to all . A marble parikrama surrounds the temple framing the pool a causeway connects the temple to the darshan deori ( entrance gate ) . A golden dome rises above the temple . There is a line of smaller domes to the front located on the four corners are chhatris ( umbrella like structure ) with fluted metal cupolas . Marble inlay work reminiscent of the taj mahal can be seen in the lower parts of the walls while the upper parts are encased in glided copper . The temple’s first floor was originally used by sikh gurus for medidation. Also known as the sheesh mahal ( as mirror work adorns it’s interiors , it’s wall has floral designs embossed with semi precious stones . It’s arches are embellished with verses from guru granth sahib possibly inspired by the muslim practice of engraving verses from the quran . On the walls next to the staircase leading to second floor are rare sikh paintings. According to a paper written by madanjit kaur of guru nanak dev university amritsar published in the book golden temple the temple’s fresco art borrows themes from hindu mythology , pointing to the tolerant nature of sikhism . The central sikh museum to the right as you enter the temple complex through the main entrance reinforces the feeling of heroism and courage interwoven in the art and plaster bricks of the golden temple . Along the parikrama there are two ber ( jujube trees ) which have survived all attacks of the temple . One is known as the dukh bhanjani ber a sacred spot where pilgrims congregate to take a dip in the pool . To the right of the darshani deori is other ber tree to which in 1740 two sikh warriors sukha singh and mehtab singh tied their horses while attacking and eventually killing massa rangar an official who had converted the temple’s sanctum into a dance hall . Also marked out is the spot where martyr baba deep singh died fighting the soldiers of afghan general khan who had desecrated the temple . It’s said that though his neck was slashed in a battle some way from the temple he managed to reach the periphery of the complex after killing enemy soldiers. The langar hall is built behind the dukh bhanjani ber . The concept of langar was created to break caste barriers. In a history of the sikhs volume 1 khuswant singh writes ” nanak took practical steps to break the vicious hold of caste by starting community free kitchens — guru ka langar — in all centre’s and persuading his followers irrespective of their caste to eat together ” . Guru amar das made langar an integral part of the gurudwara by insisting that those who want to meet him should first eat with his disciples . Located opposite the golden temple in the same complex the akal thakt was the seat from where orders were passed and military plans discussed. It also has religious significance in a tradition that harks back to the days of guru arjun dev the guru granth sahib is brought here from harminder sahib at night and carried back the next morning . The akal thakt was badly damaged in the operation blue star and had to be rebuilt . Gurudwara baba atal rai situated right behind golden temple was built in memory of atal rai , guru hargobind’s son . Gurudwara mai kaulan stands in the same compound of atal rai . Guru ke mahal is located near shastri market in chowk parsia on the site where gurus once lived. Gurudwara ramsar sahib near sgrd senior secondary school on ramsay road is where the granth sahib whose building is said to have been constructed by maharaja ranjit singh in 1833 . Saragarhi is close to the town hall and was built by the british in 1902 to honour sikh soldiers who lost their lives fighting for the queen . Next to the town hall is santokhsar sahib a gurudwara that is identical to bibeksar . A replica of the golden temple the durgiana mandir has a langar hall . The temple complex houses the lakshmi narayan mandir , the sheetala mata temple as well as hanuman mandir . It is a very sacred water tank for sikhs . It is believed to have been spotted and formed by 4th guru shri ram dass . A bath here cleanses the soul and wipes out all sins . The water of the sarovar is like nectar and is said to possess medicinal properties as well .